Mitochondrial Fluorescent Probes

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Mitochondrial Fluorescent Probes

BOC Sciences is committed to providing customers with high-quality mitochondrial fluorescent probes.

Mitochondrial fluorescent probes can realize the imaging of mitochondria and active small molecules in cells, tissues and organisms. To some extent, they can directly monitor the spatiotemporal distribution of specific active small molecules in mitochondria. Common commercial mitochondrial fluorescent probes include JC-1, JC-9, TMRM, TMRE, etc.

Characteristics of Mitochondrial Fluorescence Probes

In order to effectively detect active small molecules in mitochondria, fluorescent probes have the characteristics of strong chemical selectivity, good biocompatibility and high biological orthogonality. In the probe structure, in addition to the mitochondrial localization group attached to the probe molecule, the recognition group is connected to the fluorophore through the connecting arm, which is usually based on intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), photoinduced electron transfer (PET), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and aggregation-induced luminescence (AIE).

Applications of Mitochondrial Fluorescence Probes

Mitochondrial fluorescence probes are used to realize fluorescence imaging of mitochondria and active small molecules in mitochondria.

Mitochondrial fluorescence probes can locate and image mitochondria in cells, and judge the process of cell apoptosis by observing their morphological changes. Classical lipophilic cation localization groups, such as TPP and quaternary ammonium salt, are usually introduced into the design of mitochondrial probes, so that the probes can pass through the phospholipid bilayer and accumulate in the mitochondrial matrix driven by transmembrane potential. The presence of cations in the probe molecule is also beneficial to improve the water solubility of the probe, which can enter the cell through the cell membrane and achieve mitochondrial imaging.

Mitochondrial fluorescent probes can also be used to detect reactive oxygen species, such as highly reactive oxygen species (HROs), hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, superoxide anion free radicals, etc. By detecting the concentration and temporal and spatial distribution of ROS in mitochondria, many physiological processes affecting cells and even organisms can be found, which plays an important role in deeply revealing the law of mitochondrial life activities.

Mitochondrial fluorescent probes can also be used to detect reducing species, such as sulfhydryl compounds, glutathione (GSH) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The antioxidant system in mitochondria can effectively remove excess ROS, so such probes can effectively monitor the balance of ROS and reducing species in mitochondria.

Mitochondrial fluorescent probes can also be used to detect metal ions, hydrogen ions, anions, etc., and can effectively monitor the impact of particle changes in mitochondria on physiological state.