Lysosomal Fluorescent Probes
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Lysosomal fluorescent probes are used to label and monitor the concentration and distribution of some active small molecules in lysosomes, such as reactive oxygen species clusters, pH value and metalions, etc. These factors play a decisive role in the normal physiological metabolism of cells, and the abnormalities of these indicators are directly related to the occurrence of some diseases. Therefore, it is of great significance to accurately measure these physiological indicators.
Characteristics of Lysosomal Fluorescent Probes
Lysosomal fluorescent probes are usually designed and constructed using lipophilic amines (morpholine and tertiary amines) or oligomethylene glycol residues as targeting groups in the protone-rich acidic microenvironment of lysosomes. These structures significantly enhance the distribution of probes in lysosomes.
Classification of Lysosomal Fluorescent Probes
A variety of lysosomal targeting probes are classified and described with different analyzed objects.
- Lysosomal localization monofunctional fluorescent probes
Localization of lysosome monofunctional fluorescent probes means that these dyes or probes are only used to locate lysosomes, track their location, and observe their morphological and spatial distribution characteristics. Neutral red, acridine orange and lysotracker have been used as commercial lysosomal targeting agents. However, these probes usually have alkalization, which will increase the pH of lysosome itself and affect the results of biological imaging, and the increase of lysosomal pH will also make the probe leave lysosome and cause fluorescence quenching.
- Lysosomal pH fluorescent probes
Lysosomes are digestive organelles, and their pH is reported to be about 4.5-5.5. Abnormal lysosomal pH can lead to changes in cell function and affect human physiological processes, resulting in the occurrence and development of various diseases. As a class of fluorescent probes that can locate and measure lysosomal pH, lysosomal pH fluorescent probes have important application value for real-time monitoring of lysosomal pH changes in living cells and the diagnosis of related diseases.
- Lysosomal metalions fluorescent probes
Lysosomal metal ion fluorescent probes are mainly used to monitor copper content in lysosomes. As an essential cofactor in oxidoreductase, copper participates in many important physiological processes. The disorder of copper homeostasis is closely related to many neurodegenerative diseases.
- Lysosomal bioactive substances fluorescent probes
Lysosomal bioactive substances fluorescent probes are used to monitor intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the pathogenesis of serious diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, monitoring the level of ROS in living cells and tissues is of great significance for the early diagnosis of diseases.