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Pyrene molecule is composed of four benzene rings, is a kind of tetracyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon material, with strong fluorescence, quantum yield of 0.99 in acetone, its crystal can emit light with voltage, and was originally used in electroluminescence research. Later, it was found that the association energy of pyrene was long, and the emission of pyrene was sensitive to the environment. It is gradually applied and popularized in the field of biological probes.
Characteristics of Pyrene
Pyrene can be used as the fluorescent group of fluorescent probes because its molecular structure has the following characteristics. First, there are four benzene rings in the molecular structure, so there are large electron conjugation systems in the molecular structure. If the conjugated system is large, the delocalized π electrons are easy to excite and produce fluorescence. Second, pyrene molecule has good rigidity and coplanarity, and is a fluorescent dye with high fluorescence efficiency. Finally, the excited state fluorescence of monomers with fine structure at low concentration can form excimer fluorescence under certain conditions. Because pyrene fluorophores have the above advantages, probes designed with pyrene fluorophores as carriers have been used to detect various ions and small molecules.
Application of Pyrene
Pyrene is one of the most useful fluorescent groups in the probe design for the detection of different chemicals. Especially, When the two pyrene groups are very close together, the fluorescence emission of excimer in the direction of one side is generated. By coordinating with specific guest ions, the compound will produce fluorescence emission of monomer or exciplex according to the different positions of two pyrene units. According to the competition between pyrene monomer and exciplex, many types of on-off particle recognition systems have been successfully designed. For example, hydroxyl and amino modified pyrene compounds have high sensitivity and selectivity to silver ions, which can be used for the ratio detection of silver ions.
Pyrene can also form static or dynamic excimer complexes with other groups. Pyrene probes show different properties when they recognize different ions. When the probe recognizes chromium ions or calcium ions, the flexible chains cross, making the distance between pyrene monomers far, so it shows the properties of dynamic excimer Association. When the probe recognizes copper ions, the distance between monomers is close, showing the properties of static excimer association.