Glucose Probes

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Glucose Probes

Glucose is a simple sugar of the formula C6H12O6. Glucose is the most abundant monosaccharide, is a sub-category of carbohydrates. Glucose is mainly made up of water and carbon dioxide from plants and most algae in the photosynthesis process using the energy of sunlight. There, it is used to make cellulose in the cell wall, which is the most abundant carbohydrate. In energy metabolism, glucose is the most important source of energy in all organisms. The glucose used for metabolism is partially stored in the form of a polymer, mainly stored in the form of starch and amylopectin in plants, and stored as glycogen in animals. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals in the form of blood sugar. The naturally occurring form of glucose is d-glucose, while l-glucose is synthetically produced, relatively small in number and less important. Glucose is a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms and one aldehyde group and is therefore referred to as aldose. The glucose molecule may exist in an open chain (acyclic) and a ring (cyclic) form, which is the result of an intramolecular reaction between the aldehyde C atom and the C-5 hydroxyl group to form an intramolecular hemiacetal. In aqueous solution, both forms are in equilibrium, while at pH 7, they are predominantly cyclic. Glucose is the main source of energy for living things. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of the plant in its free state. In animals, glucose is produced by the decomposition of glycogen in the glycogen decomposition process.

lpha-D-glucopyranose-2D-skeletal Figure 1. Alpha-D-glucopyranose-2D-skeletal.


Glucose is produced by plants through the photosynthesis of sunlight, water and carbon dioxide, and all organisms can use it as an energy source and a carbon source. However, most of the glucose is not present in free form, but in the form of its polymer, ie, lactose, sucrose, starch, etc. as energy storage materials, as well as cellulose and chitin, which are plant or fungal cell walls. component. And arthropods. Animals, fungi, and bacteria degrade these polymers into glucose through enzymes through food intake. All animals are also capable of producing glucose from certain precursors when needed. Nerve cells, renal medulla cells, and red blood cells rely on glucose to produce energy. In adults, glucose is about 18 grams, about 4 grams in the blood. An adult's liver produces approximately 180 to 220 g of glucose within 24 hours. Many long-term complications of diabetes, such as blindness, renal failure, and peripheral neuropathy, may be due to glycosylation of proteins or lipids. In contrast, the addition of enzyme-regulated sugars to proteins called glycosylation is critical for the function of many proteins.

Glucose Probes

BOC Sciences provides a highly sensitive glucose probe that is ideal for physiological glucose determination in blood, tears, tissue fluids, serum or aqueous humor. Our glucose probes can easily sequester glucose and can analytically determine glucose in an intensity-dependent manner, making it easy to respond to glucose in the range of <1-200 mM. Our glucose probes are ideal for measuring tear glucose levels with a response below 2 mM glucose.


  1. Ponomarev, V.; et al. Heats of combustion of some amino-acids. Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.), 34: 1182–83
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