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Nitric Oxide probes utilize various NO recognition groups to quantify exogenous and endogenous NO in vitro and in vivo. At present, researchers have developed a large number of NO fluorescent probes, including transition metal complex type and organic-based type. Among them, fluorescent probes based on o-phenylenediamine are the earliest developed and most widely used.
Characteristics of Nitric Oxide probes
In general, organic-based NO fluorescent probes usually contain two key elements, namely NO recognition site and fluorophore. NO recognition sites can have specific chemical reactions with NO and stimulate fluorophore to produce specific fluorescence, which can capture NO. Many organic linkers can be used as NO recognition sites, such as o-phenylenediamine, which can cyclize with NO to generate benzotriazole, dihydropyridine (Hantzsch ester) can be oxidized with NO to aromatize dihydropyridine, aromatic secondary amine, can react with NO to form n-nitrite product.
The transition metal complex NO fluorescent probes are characterized by the paramagnetic properties of transition metal ions, which quench the fluorescence of fluorophores. After the probe interacts with NO, the metal ions are reduced and release fluorophores, so that the fluorescence of the probe system is restored to achieve the purpose of identifying NO.
Applications of Nitric Oxide probes
Most of the fluorescent probes used for NO imaging in biological systems are NO fluorescent probes based on organic matter. These probes show high selectivity and sensitivity, low cytotoxicity and deep tissue penetration ability, which are very suitable for NO imaging in vitro and in vivo. As the fluorescent probes solve the biocompatibility and selectivity of NO to a certain extent, it is more conducive to the detection of NO in cells. The spatial distribution of NO is used to image the changes of NO in cells under exogenous and endogenous conditions.
NO fluorescent probes based on metal complexes are mainly used in abiotic systems, such as metal complex probes of cobalt ions, copper ions and iron ions. Although these probes can selectively sense NO, they have weak biological compatibility and may be interfered by biomolecules with strong bonding ability to transition metal ions, so they are rarely used in biological systems.