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Lipid fluorescent probes are a lipid-soluble ratio-type fluorescent probes, which are used to indicate lipid peroxidation and antioxidant properties in model membrane systems and living cells.
Characteristics of lipid fluorescent probes
- The emission wavelength is in the variable region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and the spectra of the non-oxidized state (591 nm) and the oxidized state (510 nm) can be well separated.
- They have high quantum yield and good photostability, and produce very low fluorescence artifacts.
- They are essentially insensitive to environmental changes such as pH or solvent polarity and are lipophilic, which are easily to enter the membrane.
- Once oxidized, the probes remain lipophilic and do not leave the lipid bilayer spontaneously. The non-oxidized state and the oxidized state are localized in two different regions within the lipid bilayer, one located in the superficial layer (18 Å from the center of the bilayer), one in the deep layer (< 7.5 Å from the center of the bilayer).
- They have no toxicity to rat fibroblasts at concentrations up to 50 µM. They are sensitive to free radicals and peroxynitrite, but insensitive to superoxide, nitric oxide, transition iron ions and hydroperoxides.
- The sensitivity of Lipid fluorescent probes to oxidation is comparable to that of endogenous fatty acyl groups.
Application of lipid fluorescent probes
- Lipid fluorescent probe dyes are proportional to the production of lipid reactive oxygen species, so they can be analyzed and measured by flow cytometry.
- Lipid fluorescent probes can assess lipid peroxygenation. They are essentially a lipophilic dye that accumulates within the membrane. Even when Lipid fluorescent probes are oxidized, they still remain lipophilic and reflect the lipid peroxidation level of the membrane.