Ion probes are instruments that use the ions generated by a gas to bombard the surface of a sample and analyze the chemical elements and isotopes of the excited secondary ions. Elements from chlorine to uranium can be analyzed with ion probes, which complements the limitations of electronic probes with limited elemental analysis range and low sensitivity. Ion probes can perform surface analysis, depth analysis of near and shallow surfaces, volume analysis and image analysis, but the accuracy of quantification is not as good as that of electronic probes.
The basic principle of an ion probe (IMA) is to bombard the surface of a sample with high-energy negative oxygen ions, and determine the isotope composition of atoms (ie, ions) that are activated and ionized by splashing to obtain age. It is a new type of mass spectrometer with rapid development. It has many advantages not available in other dating methods: no chemical treatment is needed; it has high resolution and can obtain several groups of ages at the same time to determine whether the isotopic system of the test object is closed. With or without lead loss; the micro-area (about 20 microns) of the sample can be analyzed without substantially destroying the sample, so the fine structure of the age distribution of the mineral can be obtained. Evolution is very important; the age span of dating objects is very large, from less than 100 million years to more than 4 billion years. Almost all the oldest rocks and zircon quasi-determined years on the earth are completed by this method. The measured minerals are mainly U- and Th-containing minerals such as ilmenite, which have received much attention.
CD Bioscience offers a range of high quantum yield fluorophores with different water solubility for use in chloride ion detection applications for a variety of customers. Our chloride probes are readily fluorescently quenched (strength and longevity) by the presence of aqueous solutions, complexes or pseudo chlorides, and are well suited for the determination of chlorides in physiological or environmental settings.
The chloride probe we provided is a highly fluorescent probe that is partially soluble in water and sensitive to complex chlorides or pseudo chlorides, making it ideal for the analysis of chlorides in various media and cell/lipid applications. personnel. It can be easily excited in the range of 300-380 nm with an emission center of ≈440 nm. It is highly soluble in both MeOH and EtOH and is also readily soluble in plastic sensor carriers, making it ideal for cell surface chloride assays where the hydrophobic tail anchor probe is within the cell membrane.
Figure 1. The structure of sodium chloride, revealing the tendency of chloride ions (green spheres) to link to several cations.
Sodium ions belong to ion-selective channels across the cell membrane and are used to regulate and produce membrane potential. They are typically divided into two categories: one is a voltage-gated channel that changes or is turned on or off depending on the membrane potential; the other is a ligand gate or ion-activated channel that is activated by binding to a ligand or ion. Sodium and potassium ions are extremely important in excitatory cells such as neurons and cardiomyocytes because they functionally create action potentials and resting membrane potentials of resting cells.
Figure 2. Sodium metal.
The sodium ion indicator probe is a Na+ selective fluorescent indicator that can be used to predict the purification of mitochondrial Na+ gradients, detect intracellular Na+ levels, measure cellular Na+ efflux, and use in combination with other fluorescent indicators to analyze Na+ and Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations. Correlation between intracellular pH and membrane potential changes.